Federal Agencies Regulations

The Federal agencies and their export control regulations most commonly associated with research activity at academic institutions in the US are the following:

US Department of State (Directorate of Defense Trade Controls)
The International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) governs "defense articles and services" (items and information specifically designed or adapted for military use (includes satellites and spacecraft). The State Department also provides guidance on defense services and fundamental space science research.  https://www.pmddtc.state.gov/regulations_laws/itar.html

US Department of Commerce (Bureau of Industry and Security)
The Export Administration Regulations (EAR) govern dual use items and information predominately civilian in character by having military applications.
https://www.bis.doc.gov/index.php/regulations/export-administration-regulations-ear

US Department of the Treasury (Office of Foreign Assets Control)
The Office of Foreign Assets Control Regulations (OFAC) administers and enforces trade embargoes and economic sanctions. For reference, see their Lists of Sanctioned Countries and Specially Designated Nationals (SDNs) under the "Resources" tab on the OFAC website.  https://www.treasury.gov/about/organizational-structure/offices/Pages/Office-of-Foreign-Assets-Control.aspx
Violations of these export control regulations can lead to significant civil and criminal penalties.